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How to write a CV | The Ultimate Guide. Whether you are writing a CV for phd dissertations the first time or updating an old CV; the task of writing your CV can be confusing and overwhelming. With lots of conflicting information on the web and few quality examples of does letter resume CVs available to the public – how exactly are you supposed to know how to write a CV ? You probably have lots of ut austin questions… Don't worry … You are not alone in science is a or bane essay, asking these questions and this guide will address them all, from the basics of structure and format, right through to ut austin advanced interview-winning techniques. There is osmosis coursework evaluation, also a handy professional CV template that you can download. Of course everyone’s CV will be unique, but my years of experience in recruitment and CV writing have taught me that there are certain guidelines you should stick to, if you want to create an effective CV. Throughout this guide, I will take you through the exact CV writing process that I have used over the past few years to help my candidates and customers land the ut austin phd dissertations jobs they want. Here is a breakdown of what I will cover in the guide. It’s a very in-depth guide and will take some time to read in et persuader, full, so you may want to bookmark this page in your browser and download our free CV template to give yourself a head start.

How to write a CV | Guide Contents. 1. What to know before you start writing your CV. If you follow each step in this guide you will greatly increase the number of ut austin calls and responses you get from convaincre your job applications. Everything written here is based on my personal recruitment and CV writing experience, so I’ve seen it work. Before we delve into the details; take a look at ut austin the infographic below which gives a quick summary of what will be covered in this guide. Share this Infographic On Your Site. 1. Before you start writing your CV. Solid preparation is the key to success in osmosis, most areas of life and CV writing is no different. Your CV is one of the phd dissertations most important documents you will ever create and dissertation, it will shape the future of your career, so it pays to put in some prep time to get yourself on the right track. Before you start crafting your CV, you will need to understand a few things if you want to be successful;

What your CV is actually supposed to ut austin achieve What employers want to essay see in your CV Who will be reading your CV (Recruiters Hiring Managers) What is ut austin, your CV actually supposed to achieve? A good CV is supposed to cover letter means in a resume get you lots of job interviews for the jobs you want – it’s that simple. That’s obviously easier said than done, but try to remember that point throughout your CV writing process. The way which a CV wins job interviews for you, is by phd dissertations quickly demonstrating to coursework evaluation employers that you are the ut austin right person for their job. In order to achieve this, you need to understand what employers want to see and how they want to see it – which I will cover in the next 2 sections of this chapter. What do employers want to see in does cover resume, your CV? 99% of candidates ruin their chances of job hunt success before they have even typed one word on their CV.

Because they don’t take the time to find out phd dissertations, what their target employers are looking for. They simply write their CV based on phd dissertations the qualities that they think are important. If you don’t research the needs of the companies that you are hoping to work for, then you don’t actually know what you should be including in your CV. You will be using guess work as the foundation of your CV, which will set you up to fail in your job search. The very first thing you need to do, is find out what your target employers are looking for in candidates' CVs, so that you can then fill your CV with content that matches their needs – and therefore impress them. You can actually find out what these needs are quite easily with some simple online research – looking at relevant job adverts is phd dissertations, a good place to start. Hit the job websites and run a search for convaincre et persuader dissertation the main type of phd dissertations job you are interested in. Head over to one of the major job websites like Monster or Reed and do it now if you can. Make the search as specific as you can by filtering on salary, location, sector etc. as much as you can - this way you will narrow the search down to include only the types of job you are really interested in. As an example below – I have run a search for et persuader dissertation Admin Assistant jobs in London paying ?20k - ?25k.

Here is one of the job adverts my search has produced… As you can see it gives us a great insight into what these employers want to see in ut austin phd dissertations, applicants' CVs. Go through as many adverts as you can and gather us much information about your target employers as you can. As you go through the adverts, make a list of the things that repeatedly appear… they will be the et persuader most sought after requirements. After going through a few job Admin Assistant j ob adverts I have made a list of the things that most of the advertisers were looking for here. Obviously your list may be very different depending on your industry but this should give you an ut austin phd dissertations idea of the about the gift types of things you should be writing down. So before you start writing your CV, make your very own list just like this one. Once you have your list of requirements that your target employers are looking for in applicants, then you have a huge advantage over ut austin phd dissertations most other candidates in the job market – because now you know exactly what you need to does cover resume put in your CV to make it successful – you are not guessing like most other people who simply write a CV, send it out and hope for the best. Some of the requirements in your list will be easy for you to include in your CV – especially the things that you already have a lot of experience in.

However some things may be a bit trickier – particularly when the ut austin phd dissertations adverts are asking for what in a resume things that you have little or no experience of. But this is ut austin phd dissertations, OK – you just have to be a bit more creative – often you will find that you have a lot of transferable skills that you can draw from convaincre dissertation your experiences in phd dissertations, and outside of work such as education projects, freelance work, volunteering etc. I will cover this in more detail when we start writing your CV, but first we need to understand a little bit more about the people who will be reading your CV… Recruiters and osmosis coursework evaluation, Hiring Managers. Who reads your CV? (Recruiters Hiring Managers) In order to land your next job – you are going to need to ut austin phd dissertations impress two types of people; hiring managers and recruiters … there’s no way around that fact. If you want to make a really good impression on does them, then let’s try to look at things from phd dissertations their perspective – it will really help you get the best results from convaincre your CV and your overall job hunt. So who are hiring managers and ut austin, recruiters? You may already have a rough idea but let’s dig a bit deeper to see what really makes them tick – and most importantly, how we can use what we know about convaincre et persuader them to create a CV that will make them stand up and pay attention to you. Having worked as a recruiter for several years and dealt with lots of hiring managers in my career, I can share 3 things about them both that will help you to ut austin phd dissertations write a CV that appeals to both of them. 1. They are both extremely busy with little time to spare.

Recruiters and hiring managers have packed days; both working to constant deadlines with a million and boon or bane, one tasks to complete. For this reason, they don’t like wasting time. If you want to impress them, make sure your CV takes up as little of phd dissertations their time as possible. You need to ensure that your CV is short, sharp and gets your message across quickly. I will show you how to do this in the following chapters, but for now you just need to science know that this is a very important factor in ut austin, the recruitment process. 2. They have lots of essay about people competing for ut austin their attention. As a recruiter my inbox would sometimes have over does cover letter 100 unread emails in phd dissertations, it and I know that hiring managers are swamped with important calls and emails throughout the working week.

So if you get their attention, you need to make it count. Once you get a recruiter or hiring manager to open your CV, you need to make sure you hold their attention by making an instant impact. By making the top part of your CV extremely relevant to what letter in a them. Again, I will cover how to do this this in more detail in the format, structure and content sections of this guide, but for phd dissertations now you just need to understand importance of making an instant impact with your CV. I can tell you from personal experience that if a recruiter does not see what they need to writing research a complete edition) see as soon they open your CV, then they will usually close it down and ut austin, move straight on to the next CV – so you need to edition) make sure your CV can hold people’s attention if you want to see the interviews roll in.

Recruiters and ut austin, hiring managers have a reputations to maintain with their peers and essay about of the, clients – there’s a lot of pressure on them to ut austin make the right decisions… Especially when it comes to hiring staff. If a hiring manager hires a bad candidate, it can literally ruin their business. There is ut austin phd dissertations, a lot at stake when it comes to hiring people. When writing your CV, you need to ut austin make sure that you don’t give anybody a single reason to doubt you. What Does Letter In A Resume! In a recent survey of recruitment firms that we ran at StandOut CV; we found that it only ut austin phd dissertations, takes one grammar mistake for a recruiter to science boon or bane start seriously doubting your credibility.

So when writing your CV, you need to phd dissertations ensure that your language is flawless and persuasive, the writing (paperback) formatting and ut austin phd dissertations, structure is perfect and you have a proper process in place to run final checks before getting the CV out to market. Again, I will cover how you actually do this in what letter, greater detail during the following chapters. Before you start writing your CV – Conclusion. OK, now you already have a huge advantage over most other candidates. You know what your target employers want to see and you know a bit about the people who will be reviewing your CV. So in summary, if your CV is going to win interviews it needs to phd dissertations do the 2 following things. It needs to show readers that you have the skills experience that they need It needs to communicate your value quickly and science is a boon essay, professionally. If you can do both of these things, you will land a lot of job interviews. If you quickly show a recruiter or hiring manager that you have the ut austin phd dissertations skills needed for ut austin phd dissertations their job.

They will look at the CV and instantly say, “T his person can do the job, let’s get them in for ut austin an interview ”. So over the next few chapters I will explain exactly how you can do this with a structure that highlights the important information and content that will have your desired employers desperate to interview you. 2. How to format and structure your CV. Now that you know what to include in your CV and who will be reading it, you need to format and structure your CV in a way that will do the following things; Make your CV look impeccably professional Make your CV easy for readers to evaluation navigate and find the information they need Make the information easily digestible and quick-to-read. The infographic below gives a high level of ut austin overview of the best way to structure your CV. I’ll run through each section to give a bit more detail on each.

As I mentioned earlier, recruiters and hiring managers tend to does be very busy, so it’s best to phd dissertations keep your CV short and sharp to ensure it gets read. Ideally your CV should be around 2 pages in coursework evaluation, length , but if you go a little over or under, don’t worry - there is ut austin, no set-in-stone rule about around how long your CV should be. If you have lots of experience then you may find that you stray on to the third page slightly, and coursework evaluation, conversely if you don’t have much experience, then you may struggle to fill the second page completely. Just to try to keep as close to 2 pages as you can. Quick tip: If you find your CV is coming in too long – cut down some of the detail in your older roles as recruiters will be focusing more on ut austin your recent roles. When formatting your CV, simplicity and science is a or bane, readability are essential if you want to keep your CV readers happy. Microsoft Word is the most widely used and liked format for CVs across the UK, so always send your CV in Word if you want to ensure it gets opened. Avoid sending your CV in phd dissertations, PDF because it is non-editable and sometimes recruiters will need to make slight edits to ut austin your CV before they can send it on to hiring managers and clients. The font you use just needs to ut austin be easy to read, professional looking and used consistently throughout the ut austin phd dissertations CV. Phd Dissertations! At StandOut CV we use fonts like Arial, Tahoma and Calibri in our customer CVs.

Avoid using overly complex fonts as they can be difficult to essay about magi read and ut austin, may discourage recruiters from reading your CV in full. Unless you’re applying for an acting or modelling job, a photograph is the gift of the, not necessary in your CV. Ut Austin! Photos take up a lot of the limited space available on your CV and it’s better to fill that space with compelling reasons for an employer to convaincre hire you. To keep your CV looking professional, it’s best to ut austin phd dissertations stick to black text on a white background for science is a the body of your sections. It’s OK to ut austin phd dissertations add a splash of colour to headings when applying to modern trendy firms (like tech startups for example) but don’t go crazy and ensure it still looks professional. This an example of a typical that CV structure we have livened up with a bit of colour.

Before I delve into the nuts and bolts of each CV section, here is et persuader, a brief overview of the way your CV should be divided and ut austin phd dissertations, sub-headed. What Does Means Resume! The images also show how much space each section should take up on phd dissertations a typical 2 page CV. Start the top of your CV with your name and ut austin phd dissertations, contact details so that the ut austin phd dissertations reader knows who you are and how they can reach you if they want to about the gift of the invite you in for an interview. Telephone number – mobile is best so you can respond to ut austin phd dissertations recruiters whilst on the move. Email address – use an address that looks professional – no nicknames etc. Location – State your general location such as London – there’s no need to put your full address. Also if you are willing to relocate then state where you are willing to move to. What Cover Letter Means In A Resume! Location is very important as you can be quickly rejected from ut austin phd dissertations a role if the recruiter thinks you live too far away to commute. You can also add your LinkedIn profile address and even Twitter handle if you have a work-based Twitter profile.

Your CV profile is like an introduction that sits just under your contact details. About Magi! The aim of your profile is to draw the ut austin reader in science is a essay, by summarising all of ut austin your skills and knowledge in a few punchy sentences that leaves them wanting to et persuader dissertation read more. After your profile, you need to detail your current and previous employment to ut austin showcase the work that you’ve done and how you’ve helped your employers. Generally your roles should be listed in reverse chronological order (from most recent to osmosis coursework oldest) but there are some occasions where you can make exceptions to that rule. Near the bottom of your CV you should list your education and qualifications. Generally speaking school leavers and recent graduates should include a lot of ut austin phd dissertations detail here to research a complete guide make up for phd dissertations the lack of work experience – whereas experienced candidates can afford to have a shorter education section, as their role descriptions will be more important to recruiters. Interests are an osmosis coursework optional section and should only ut austin, really be included where they can add value to an application e.g. work related interests, volunteering, impressive achievements etc. Now I will run through how to structure and write all of these sections; 3. Osmosis Coursework Evaluation! Writing your CV Profile/Personal Statement. Your Profile (or Personal Statement as it is often referred to in academic fields) is the very first thing a recruiter or hiring manager will read, so you need to ensure that it is packed with the ut austin phd dissertations requirements that your target employers are looking for. Here are a couple of example CV profiles to what cover means resume give you an idea of how they should look and read.

Sitting at the top of your CV, the purpose of your profile is to give a rounded summary of your talents and show what you have to offer an ut austin employer, in a few punchy yet professional sentences. Focus on including hard factual skills such as industry specific skills, experience, languages, software knowledge etc. And really try to avoid using CV cliches and buzzwords . What are cliches and buzzwords? Cliches and ut austin phd dissertations, buzzwords are vague phrases that are often used to phd dissertations describe soft skills such as: You’ve probably seen them and you may have even been tempted to is a boon or bane essay use them in your CV. The problem with cliches and buzzwords is that they tend to phd dissertations be very generic and don’t tell the reader much about you in reality, so it’s best to keep them out of your CV or at coursework evaluation least keep them to a minimum. If you want to phd dissertations prove you’re a hard-working team-player, then give examples of team based results you’ve achieved in your role descriptions.

This way the phd dissertations reader can see relevant examples of how you apply your skills in your work rather than just being told that you are a “hard worker”. The difference between a good and bad CV profile. Here is an phd dissertations example of a bad profile section. Read it and see if you can tell what the candidate actually does… “Hard working professional who works well in ut austin, a team or individually, quick to phd dissertations grasp new ideas skills. A Complete (15th! I take pride in my work and strive for excellence and always meet deadlines”

What job would this person be suitable for? Although it may sound impressive, it’s impossible to tell what this candidate has to offer because the profile is full of ut austin cliches and contains no facts – this is what you should avoid at all costs. Some of the writing research papers a complete guide (15th edition) points may be important but they are totally meaningless without facts and context so recruiters won’t learn anything about you with a profile like this. Here is how we re-wrote this section of the candidate’s profile… “Accomplished Project Support Assistant with a proven track record in ut austin, the support of large construction teams on the delivery of complex housing builds within strict budgets and essay about, deadlines” If you make your profile more factual like this, it will give recruiters a greater understanding of what you have to offer. Add a Core Skills section to boost your profile. A core skills section is ut austin phd dissertations, a very simple but effective section you can add to the bottom of your profile.

It’s essentially a bullet pointed list of attributes which ideally should relate directly to the requirements that your employers are looking for. Here is an convaincre et persuader dissertation example from a candidate applying for a customer service role in retail banking. The effect is ut austin phd dissertations, that each point jumps out of the page at the reader and shows them that you are a good fit for the role, just from glancing at coursework your CV. Ut Austin! This helps you to create that big instant impression that you need to ut austin get a response from your job applications. You can include anything that will be relevant from IT skills and industry knowledge, to education results and achievements. Just make sure they are important to ut austin phd dissertations the roles you are applying for by checking with relevant job adverts. 4. Your Work Experience | What to include in writing papers (15th edition), your CV and how to structure your roles.

Your work experience gives you an phd dissertations excellent opportunity to showcase your abilities and ut austin, really delve into the details of what you can offer an employer. Your role descriptions need to convey that your experience equips you with the skills and knowledge needed to carry out the phd dissertations jobs you are applying for. First I will give you an overview of which roles to include and how to evaluation list them – then I will demonstrate how to structure each role for maximum effect. Roles should be written in reverse chronological order starting with your current or most recent role and working your way down to your oldest role. This generally works very well for ut austin phd dissertations those with experience in about magi, the field they are applying to – but candidates with limited experience or those making a career change can break this rule slightly if they need to (I will cover this more in the next section). You will mainly want to include your paid jobs but you can also add voluntary positions or even university/college work placements if they are relevant to the roles you are applying to. Your current role and recent roles should contain lots of detail because recruiters are most interested in phd dissertations, what you are capable of right now.

Older roles can be summarised as you go down the essay about the gift CV, as recruiters will be less interested in your roles from several years ago. Breaking the ut austin phd dissertations chronological order rule (If you have little or no experience) If you've got plenty of experience in the field you are applying to – you may want to skip this section. Click here to about the gift skip. You don’t always have to start your CV roles with your most recent paid role - especially if you fall in to one of the 2 following categories . If you fall into one of these brackets then it’s likely that your most recent paid role will not be entirely relevant to the firms you are applying for.

If your most recent role won’t appeal to your target employers, then you can use a bit of creative licence and insert a more relevant past role at the top of your CV such as: Let’s take a look at the example candidates above and see how they can break the ut austin phd dissertations chronological order role slightly, to make their CVs appear more suitable for the jobs they are applying to. 1. Recent graduate or school leaver. If you are a recent graduate or school leaver, you can often use older work placements and other non-paid roles to replace your current role at the top of your CV, if it makes your CV appear more relevant. Take a look at the example below.

Laura has recently graduated with a degree in aerospace engineering and is looking for an entry level job with an aerospace design firm. Laura’s current job as a waitress in a local restaurant is not hugely relevant to the aerospace firms she is does means in a, applying to, so she shouldn't put the waitress role at the top of phd dissertations her CV if she can avoid it. However, Laura did complete a one month work placement for an aerospace research firm in 2012 as part of guide edition) her University degree. In this case, Laura should list the ut austin aerospace work placement at osmosis coursework the top of her work experience section – she shouldn't keep it hidden in her education section at the bottom of phd dissertations her CV. Now recruiters will instantly be able to see that Laura has relevant work experience as soon as they open her CV and means, she will seem much more suitable for the role. Although it bends the rules slightly, it will make a much better first impression on her target employers. 2. Somebody looking to make a career change.

Also if you're looking to make a career change then your current role will probably not be relevant to the roles you are applying for. For example, David has got lots of experience in IT support, which is great – but now that he is ut austin phd dissertations, looking to move into writing a complete (paperback) (15th edition), a care worker position, his current IT support manager role will not be relevant to the employers he is hoping to impress. David has however done a few weeks of voluntary care work at a local nursing home a few months ago. In this case, David just needs to slot the voluntary care role above his current IT role to instantly show recruiters that he has some relevant experience and make his CV stand out ut austin, . Being creative with your first listed role in this manner does technically bend the osmosis coursework evaluation CV writing rules slightly, but it gives you a much greater chance of impressing employers and landing interviews. If you don’t have any experience at all that you can add in ut austin phd dissertations, this fashion, then the simple solution is to go out and ut austin phd dissertations, get some. Look for voluntary work, sign up to freelancing websites, take a training course or even offer to help businesses for free. Even if you only get a few weeks experience, it can be a huge boost to your CV, so it’s worth doing. Structuring your CV role descriptions. If you want your role descriptions to be easily readable and really highlight the phd dissertations value in writing papers, hiring you, then they need to be well structured and written. The annotated example here shows how to structure your roles for ut austin maximum results.

As with your entire CV, you should try to highlight the skills and experience that your audience will be looking for. Prioritise the responsibilities by ensuring that the does letter means in a resume most relevant information for your target employers is at ut austin the top of each role in great detail. Long periods of convaincre et persuader dissertation unemployment can be off-putting for employers because it simply appears as though you haven’t been doing anything during that period – unless you state otherwise. So if you have any periods of ut austin phd dissertations unemployment that lasted over a month or so, then try to fill them with constructive activities to make yourself look pro-active and positive e.g. Studying – with details of in a qualifications gained or working towards Travel – great to demonstrate planning, organisation and people skills Volunteer roles or personal projects – e.g. caring for a family member, working for a community initiative.

If you've had time out for personal reasons such as a serious illness, then don't be worried about including it on ut austin phd dissertations your CV - employers should not discriminate against you for it. Convaincre Dissertation! Just keep the detail light and focus on highlighting your value throughout the rest of your CV. The language used in phd dissertations, your CV should be professional, persuasive, descriptive and ut austin phd dissertations, grammatically perfect throughout. It should read like a sales brochure for a luxury product; leaving the reader desperate to call you, just in case they miss out on ut austin phd dissertations the opportunity. The language used in your CV gives recruiters an insight into your written communication skills and your professionalism, so make it count. Avoid using basic language because it makes you look like a basic candidate, when you need to look outstanding.

By basic language, I mean writing in a plain and non-descriptive fashion like this… “I was working for the manager and et persuader, helping out with various tasks across the business” That looks dull, uninspiring and phd dissertations, a not too impressive. However, you can reword the exact same responsibilities to be more descriptive and sound much more impressive, like this: “Reporting directly to the manager, supporting a number of science is a boon business critical functions” Even something like; Can be improved to something like; “Managing and analysing stock levels throughout the store to ensure that customers always have access to high demand products at phd dissertations peak times” Although that’s an osmosis coursework extreme example, it displays a better style of written communication and shows that you have an understanding of how the task affects the business at a higher level.

When writing your CV, ensure that you are using professional language at phd dissertations all times and fully describing your impact on employers. If you struggle to write professionally or English isn't your first language, I would recommend using a free grammar checking tool like Grammarly - It highlights your mistakes and provides suggestions for corrections. You can also head over to LinkedIn and ut austin, run a search for similar professionals to phd dissertations yourself. Browse through a few profiles and look at the language being used for et persuader dissertation some inspiration. Although you can mention your education and qualifications in your CV profile, their full details should be listed near to the bottom of your CV. The amount of phd dissertations information that you include in this section will largely depend on your experience level. Generally speaking, if you have lots of work experience, you won’t need to write about your education in great detail, as recruiters will be more interested in your work history. If you are relatively inexperienced, such as recent graduate or school leaver, then you should write about your education in more detail because that’s where most of research papers a complete guide (paperback) your skills and phd dissertations, experience will lie. To counter your lack of work experience, you can include dissertations, school/university projects, exam modules etc. and endeavour to highlight the points that are relevant to ut austin the roles you are applying to.

The following examples show how to list your education at ut austin phd dissertations different stages in your career. Entry level CV – Graduate/School Leaver. Candidates often ask whether or not they need to include their interests on their CV and if they will actually make a difference in an application. The answer depends on two aspects – the evaluation role that you are applying for and if your interests bear any relevance to phd dissertations the role. On one hand, if you are an experienced and qualified doctor applying for a GP role, then adding your interests of writing papers (paperback) going to the cinema or watching football will have little impact on your application – they just don’t add any value.

However, if you are a recent graduate applying for a management Grad scheme with little work experience, then a hobby such as captaining a football team, can actually be a great way to demonstrate leadership and organisation. Interests are optional and in ut austin phd dissertations, many cases, they won’t make a huge difference – but if you feel that they could impact your application then you should include them. Sports teams or interest societies and clubs – competing in what cover means, sports or other pursuits can show determination, team work and a competitive nature. Travel – travelling can be of interest to employers as it can show independence, organisation and an outgoing personality. Volunteering – volunteering for charities or community projects shows pro-activity and a willingness to help others, which are both desirable traits in an employee. Interests to phd dissertations leave out of your CV. “Socialising with friends” – a lot of people write this phrase on their CV, but nearly everybody on the planet socialises with their friends, so it’s not something worth mentioning on your CV. Political/Religious views – politics and religion are probably a bit heavy for a CV and won’t really add much to the strength of an application.

Anything that could be considered controversial or slightly weird - if you are into witchcraft or hamster grooming then that’s fine… but best not to add it to your CV to avoid being pre-judged by recruiters. Download our basic Microsoft Word CV template here to get a head start with your own CV. Using the CV template in conjunction with this guide should put you on the right track to creating an convaincre dissertation impressive CV and kick starting your job hunt. Once you've finished writing your CV then make sure that you triple check it for ut austin errors before sending it out to anybody. Nothing will put a recruiter off you more quickly than spelling errors, typos and grammatical mistakes . Perhaps even ask a friend or family member to run through it to essay about magi get a different perspective and ensure it all makes sense. Also ensure that the CV sits at around 2 pages in phd dissertations, length and that all the coursework evaluation information is nicely broken up for phd dissertations ease of reading.

Now you are ready to writing research papers a complete guide (paperback) edition) start job hunting. Once you’ve started your job hunt, you can still make changes to ut austin phd dissertations your CV if you need to. For example you may want to about of the tailor your CV when applying for different roles to further ensure that your CV matches each job advert. You may find that certain areas of phd dissertations your CV are prompting negative feedback and will need to be modified in order to improve your chances. Any adaptions you can make that lead to more interview requests, are worth making.

Hopefully this guide will help you to create your own CV and start to land quality job interviews in your chosen field. Copyright 2017 StandOut CV | Professional CV Writing Service | Website template by Shopify.

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The Death of Ivan Ilych Summary and Analysis of Chapters 1-2. During an interval in a trial, several legal professionals converse in a private room. Fedor Vasilievich and Ivan Egorovich discuss a court case while Peter Ivanovich reads a newspaper. Their discussion takes a new course when Peter Ivanovich reads in the obituaries that Ivan Ilych has died. Phd Dissertations! Ivan Ilych had been terminally ill for science essay some time. He was the ut austin phd dissertations colleague of the men present. The men immediately think, each to himself, of how Ivan Ilych's death may result in promotion for phd dissertations them all.

They discuss the phd dissertations death briefly and return to discussing other matters. Each man thinks gratefully that Ivan Ilych is does cover in a dead and not he. They also think of how they will be forced to go through all the tedious business of paying respects and visiting the family. Peter Ivanovich has known Ivan Ilych since their student days. Later that day he goes to ut austin phd dissertations Ivan Ilych's house. A coffin rests against a wall downstairs. Other people are there to pay respects, and among them Peter Ivanovich sees his playful colleague Schwartz. Schwartz will wait for him so that they can make arrangements to play bridge later. Peter Ivanovich goes upstairs, to the room where they body is. Peter Ivanovich knows that probably he should cross himself but is writing papers guide (paperback) unsure of how much bowing he should do. He improvises repeated self-crossing with a kind of half-bow and makes his way toward the body.

A Reader is reciting the appropriate ritual readings, while various family and friends pay respects to the body. Peter Ivanovich sees Gerasim, the butler's assistant who'd also been Ivan Ilych's sick nurse, strewing something on the floor. When Peter Ivanovich feels he's been crossing himself too long, he stops and looks at the corpse. Ivan Ilych's face seems somehow handsomer in death than in life, and is marked by some kind of expression of satisfaction, that what was necessary was accomplished, and accomplished rightly (114). The face also seems to bear some kind of ut austin phd dissertations warning to the living. Peter Ivanovich becomes uncomfortable and hurriedly leaves the room, ignoring propriety.

He sees Schwartz again, and the two make plans for bridge. Osmosis Evaluation! Just then, Praskovya Fedorovna, Ivan Ilych's wife, comes out and announces the service is about to begin. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! Schwartz stays quiet, not committing to staying for the service, but the convaincre dissertation woman approaches Peter Ivanovich directly, and so he has no choice. She leads him to an inner drawing room. There's some trouble when her shawl catches on something, but once she has extricated herself she pulls out ut austin phd dissertations, a handkerchief and weeps. Sokolov, the butler, enters to inform Praskovya Fedorovna of the price of convaincre various funeral plots. Once this discussion is over and the butler leaves, she tells Peter Ivanovich of the terrible pain Ivan Ilych was in at the end. The last three days, he screamed the entire time. He was wholly conscious. She talks about the dreadful sufferings of ut austin phd dissertations her husband, in terms of the effects they had on her nerves, and then asks Peter Ivanovich advice about pensions and governments grants.

He sees quickly that while she feigns ignorance, she clearly knows more about the money to which she is entitled than he does; she only is convaincre trying to see if she can get a little more. Once he proves to be of no help, she seems eager to phd dissertations be rid of him. He goes, and in the dining room he meets a priest and a few acquaintances. Ivan Ilych's daughter and her fiance are there, as well as Ivan Ilych's young son. He attends the services. On the way out he comments to Gerasim about the sadness of the occasion, but the peasant says simply that it's God's will and what does cover letter means in a resume, the fate of all men.

Peter Ivanovich still has plenty of time that evening to play bridge. The inevitability of death is one of the central themes of The Death of Ivan Ilych. Phd Dissertations! There is no suspense about whether or not the protagonist will die. His death is the title, and in the first chapter of the writing research guide (paperback) edition) novel his death has already happened. Tolstoy wants to bludgeon his reader with the ut austin presence of death: the novel begins with, ends with, and takes its name from death. The events of Chapter 1 happen chronologically after the events of what does letter means in a resume all of the subsequent chapters. Ivan Ilych's struggle forms the true story of the novel, but by making a prelude out of his death's aftermath Tolstoy provides context for his central story. Certainly, Chapter 1 would be out of place if placed according to phd dissertations chronology, at the end of the novel. The social commentary of the first chapter, while brilliant, is essay the gift of the magi not meaty enough to follow the phd dissertations spiritual crisis and struggle with mortality that finally ends in Chapter 12.

But the observations in Chapter 1 are brilliant, scathing, and thematically loaded. The theme of inner reality versus outer appearance dominates this chapter. Throughout the entire chapter, characters think one thing but present another; even when characters are aware of the essay the gift of the magi act, and aware that others are aware of the ut austin act, the essay about of the magi act continues. When Peter Ivanovich and Praskovya Fedorovna are talking, both are presenting what they believe to be appropriate emotions. Even genuine sorry is mixed with hypocrisy: The thought of the phd dissertations sufferings of this man he had known so intimately, first as a merry little boy, then as a school-mate, and later as a grown-up colleague, suddenly struck Peter Ivanovich with horror, despite an unpleasant consciousness of his own and coursework evaluation, this woman's dissimulation (117). The whole chapter has forced the reader into phd dissertations, a similarly unpleasant consciousness, nearly from the beginning. On hearing the news of Ivan Ilych's death, the first thought of phd dissertations each of the ut austin gentlemen in that private room was of the changes and promotions it might occasion . . . (111). Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! No one talks about phd dissertations it, but all are guilty of the phd dissertations same selfish and uncompassionate reaction.

The observations continue throughout, along this same track: the men are annoyed about having to live up their obligations on such an occasion (112); Peter Ivanovich must go comfort Praskovya Fedorovna when he'd really rather play cards (115; Praskovya Fedorovna only finds the tears to cry after her shawl has been disentangled (116); and Praskovya Fedorovna seeks comfort but really needs advice about how to ut austin wheedle the government out of more money (116). Propriety is a constant theme, and the demands of propriety move people to behave contrary to their genuine (usually selfish) emotions. Propriety demands that Ivan Ilych's friends attend a service and offer condolences. Generally, the characters of the novel are more concerned with propriety than with kindness. Science Or Bane Essay! Tolstoy gets humor out of the fact that people are concerned with propriety, but not always sure of its dictates: note the scene where Peter Ivanovich is unsure of the appropriate ritual when approaching the ut austin phd dissertations body, and ends up improvising an odd mix of essay about of the magi bowing and crossing. Propriety is a public concern; the inner world of characters is allowed to fester, and no one seems concerned with the deplorable state of their morals. Tolstoy allows his narrative voice to inject some scorn when he refers to Peter Ivanovich and his colleagues as Ivan Ilych's so-called friends (112). Genuine emotions tend to phd dissertations be selfish. Peter Ivanovich is horrified not by the death of Ivan Ilych, but by being forced to confront his own mortality. He spends the whole night with only a twinge of sorrow for his friend, whom he has known since boyhood.

At the end of the et persuader dissertation evening, he goes to play cards and casts thoughts of his friend's death out of his head. The inevitability of death is an phd dissertations, important theme of a novel, and convaincre et persuader dissertation, the theme of man's unwillingness to confront death is its companion. Peter Ivanovich, like all of the others, refuses to think about his own death. Ivan Ilych's friends all feel that Ivan Ilych is ut austin dead, and not they: they do not reflect on the fact that his fate is in store for all of them. Peter Ivanovich flees from the body because he does not want to ponder the lesson it offers. The only character who seems at ease with death is the peasant servant Gerasim, who takes for granted that death comes to all. Gerasim is a literary creation based on Tolstoy's somewhat idealized beliefs about the Russian peasantry. His simplicity and acceptance of nature's process are wholly alien to the urban characters of the novel. Ivan Ilych's life had been most simple and most ordinary and therefore most terrible. His death at age 45 follows a nondescript career as a member of the court of justice. To start Ivan Ilych's life at the beginning: his father is Ilya Epimovich Golovin, a kind of essay magi man who serves in unnecessary positions, earning money for doing little.

He is a superfluous member of various superfluous institutions, and ut austin phd dissertations, Ivan Ilych is his second son. The eldest son is coursework like his father, soon to ut austin phd dissertations live off the phd dissertations fat of bureaucracy. The third son is a failure. Ivan Ilych is the ut austin happy medium between the wildness of the third and osmosis, cold formality of the first, and great things are expected of him. He is le phenix de la famille (the phoenix of the family). As the School of Law, where his younger brother fails and Ivan Ilych does quite well, Ivan Ilych is exactly the ut austin man he remains for most of the coursework evaluation rest of his life: capable, cheerful, good-natured, and sociable . . Phd Dissertations! . though strict in essay the gift magi, the fulfillment of what he considered to be his duty: and he considered his duty to be what was so considered by those in authority (121). He is unquestioningly admiring of those in high station, and seeks to imitate them however he can. After law school he qualifies for a position in phd dissertations, the civil service and treats himself to the conventional pleasures: nice clothes from a fashionable tailor, farewell dinners, other necessities.

He attaches a medallion that reads respice finem (look to the end) to his watch chain. His work takes him to the provinces as an official serving the governor. He is conventionally efficient and appropriate for does cover resume his work. In social settings he is ut austin phd dissertations witty and well-liked. He has affairs with numerous women and occasionally visits prostitutes, but all is approved by his superiors and therefore does not trouble him. The demands of his career force a move, and though he no longer works for a governor his new position carries more power. Ivan Ilych enjoys treating subordinates and those in his power well, because it makes him feel powerful.

He loves acting self-important, and graciously condescending. When he moves again and becomes examining magistrate in his new town, he makes friends with the local society and takes up card-playing. There he meets Praskovya Fedorovna, the best girl in his set, and she falls in love with him. He marries her. At first their married life is resume very pleasant, but once Praskovya Fedorovna becomes pregnant things change. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! She becomes jealous, and disturbs the propriety of of the magi their domestic life. She demands attention and makes scenes.

Ivan Ilych deals with her by devoting himself more fully to work. Phd Dissertations! He comes to realize that marriage is often an obstacle to the decorous life and propriety he adores, and that he must adopt a definitive attitude toward his wife and writing research (paperback) edition), child just as he has a definitive attitude toward his work. He and ut austin phd dissertations, his wife settle into a mode of mutual aloofness, through moves and various promotions and the births and deaths of several children. What Does Letter! Years pass: at last, his eldest daughter is sixteen and his one surviving son is a schoolboy. Both seem to have turned out satisfactorily. Ivan Ilych is a man of wholly conventional aspirations and phd dissertations, tastes. He is not without some success, but his life is not at convaincre all out of the ordinary. He strives to imitate his superiors, he enjoys the petty powers of his position without abusing them, and he is always conscious of what society in general tells him what to do. He is likable, even charming. The excesses of phd dissertations his youth are normal, within the range of bourgeois propriety. His normalness is driven home by a metaphorical placement in his family: the middle son, the one who is in temperament between the other two, the happy mean.

He is the gift of the someone with whom most readers can identify. Death is far from phd dissertations, his considerations, but Tolstoy drops several reminders of mortality into young Ivan Ilych's life. He is called le phenix de la famille, meaning the most promising of the three sons. But the phoenix is science boon or bane also a creature of death and rebirth, and it foreshadows Ivan Ilych's end. Young Ivan Ilych carries a medal on his watch chain. The medal reads respice finem, Latin for look to the end. Young Ivan Ilych probably interprets the ut austin end as the goal, the essay about of the magi success that follows hard work. But the saying seems also to refer to phd dissertations death, the ultimate end.

The medal is attached to a watch chain, a metonymy for time. Every second brings Ivan Ilych and every other human being an increment closer to osmosis evaluation death. The theme of death's inevitability is seen in both the phoenix and ut austin, the Latin saying. As always, also present is the theme of coursework evaluation man's unwillingness to confront death, made clear when the characters see these references to ut austin death but interpret them in other ways. In this novel, not understanding death seems closely related to poor understanding of life. As Ivan Ilych gets older, he detaches himself from life.

His work is described as a kind of what letter means resume exercise, detached from human realities: . . . he very soon acquired a method of eliminating all considerations irrelevant to the legal aspect of the case, and reducing even the most complicated case to a form in which it would be presented on paper only in its externals, completely excluding his personal opinion of the matter, while above all observing every prescribed formality (123). Justice is no longer a thing of supreme interest and importance, concerned with human beings and Truth. Under Ivan Ilych's hand, it becomes an exercise in paperwork, all externals. His attitude toward work is reflection on the themes of propriety and inner reality versus outer appearance. Ivan Ilych is mostly concerned with outer appearance. His work, rather than letting him live more fully in the reality of phd dissertations his life, allows him to writing papers (15th live in a world without real concern for truth, without real feeling, and without real involvement. His family life has the same effect.

His marriage does not allow him to ut austin phd dissertations live more fully; rather, he becomes more and more detached. The description of does letter means in a resume one of his family's moves clarifies how misplaced his family's priorities are: They moved, but were short of money and his wife did not like the place they moved to. Though the ut austin salary was higher the cost of living was greater, besides which two of their children died and family life became still more unpleasant for him (127). That besides which turns the death of two children into an afterthought. The concerns of cost of living and the unpleasant location come first to Ivan Ilych and his wife. They do not dwell on the deaths of their children; Tolstoy describes no effect on them, no change wrought by this kind of loss. Convaincre Dissertation! Although infant mortality was more common in Tolstoy's death, that fact alone does not account for the detachment seen here.

The themes of refusal to ut austin phd dissertations contemplate death and detachment from science boon or bane essay, life are both at work. Ivan Ilych and ut austin phd dissertations, Praskovya Fedorovna seem more concerned with money and convenience than their children's lives; their priorities are askew. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-death-of-ivan-ilych/study-guide/summary-chapters-1-2 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Death of Ivan Ilych The Death of Ivan Ilych Summary Character List Themes Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-2 Chapters 3-4 Chapters 5-6 Chapters 7-8 Chapters 9-10 Chapters 11-12 Related Links Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Leo Tolstoy Biography. The Death of Ivan Ilych Questions and writing papers guide edition), Answers.

The Question and Answer section for ut austin The Death of about magi Ivan Ilych is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Gerasim is the name of the ut austin phd dissertations peasant boy, who takes care of Ivan. The doctor suspects Ivan's illness has something to do with his appendix. I'm sorry, which of the essay about the gift of the magi following means there were multiple choice answers provided with the question posted above. Your question cannot be answered without the choices provided. Study Guide for The Death of Ivan Ilych. The Death of Ivan Ilych study guide contains a biography of Leo Tolstoy, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

Essays for The Death of Ivan Ilych. The Death of Ivan Ilych literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and ut austin phd dissertations, provide critical analysis of The Death of Ivan Ilych.

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50 Resume Objective Statements Essay Sample. Writing an effective objective statement is tough. To make it easier, we have listed 50 objective statements from ut austin actual job seekers. You can see what works, and science is a or bane, what doesn’t. A hiring manager will often read dozens, if not hundreds of resumes at a time. There is no shortage of job seekers. Reading through the list below can help you see the objective statements from the perspective of a hiring manager screening resumes. These are actual objective statements from resumes and are unedited, and are provided to give you an ut austin idea of how a typical resume starts. An objective statement on a resume can help you get a closer look from a hiring manager. Often, the person screening resumes will have a number of different positions that need to be filled. If it isn’t clear what your goals are, the screener may discard your resume without considering you for the specific job you seek.

This is especially important if you are trying to break into a new career field. What Letter Means. The object statements below offer a wide range of styles and content. As you read these, consider a few best practices for objective statements: •Keep it Short: A hiring manage does not want to read a book on ut austin phd dissertations want you want. Make sure your objective is writing research papers guide (paperback) (15th short and concise. Often one short sentence is phd dissertations sufficient. Writing Research A Complete. In the worst resumes, we have seen objectives that are in excess of 150 words. •WIIFT: Your objective is “What’s In It For Me,” but your resume is ut austin sales pitch to essay the gift of the get you hired. Phd Dissertations. It needs to focus on “What’s In It For Them.” Provide just enough information in your objective for a hiring manager to know what job you are seeking, and get back to selling your potential. A good way to do this is by listing a key skill and how you have added value with the skill. Start with a short one line objective, concluding with specific skill you want to utilize. Writing Papers A Complete (15th. Then, after the objective statement, add three bullet points showing specific accomplishments using the phd dissertations skill. Make sure the accomplishments have specific, quantified results. •Be Specific: Many of the objectives below do not say anything.

Almost any job would meet the ut austin objective. If you are going to write an objective statement, it needs to be specific. What job and industry do you want? Saying you want to phd dissertations be part of a successful company, where you can utilize your skills and of the, abilities, does not say anything. Phd Dissertations. Who wants to work for a failing company where they are unqualified and can’t do the job?

If you are going to take the time to put an objective statement on your resume, make it valuable. Few of the objective statements below satisfy these best practices, and this is typical of most resumes. Many are short, but that’s about all they have going for them. Look for the ones that are specific. Most are too general. Ut Austin. You do not need to pick a single objective that you use for every application. You can and should change your resume to fit every employer and job you apply for. 1.Objective: General Manager in an established and successful business.

2.Position Targets: Director of Lean Manufacturing, Continuous Improvement Change Agent, Value Stream Manager, Lean Manufacturing Champion, Process Improvement Manager, Continuous Improvement Leader, Operations Manager and Management Process Improvement Consultant. 3.OBJECTIVE: Obtain a challenging leadership position applying creative problem solving and phd dissertations, lean management skills with a growing company to achieve optimum utilization of its resources and maximum profits. 4.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: To continue my career with an cover letter resume organization that will utilize my MANAGEMENT, SUPERVISION ADMINISTRATIVE skills to benefit mutual growth and success. 5.Objective: I am currently looking for phd dissertations, a full time position in an environment that offers a greater challenge, increased benefits for my family, and the opportunity to help the research guide (15th edition) company advance efficiently and ut austin phd dissertations, productively 6.Objective Director of Operations/General Manager. 7.JOB TARGET: My goal is to become associated with a company where I can utilize my skills and guide (15th edition), gain further experience while enhancing the company’s productivity and reputation.

8.Objective: To secure a position with a stable and phd dissertations, profitable organization, where I can be a member of osmosis coursework evaluation a team and utilize my business experience to the fullest. 9.Objective: To further my professional career with an executive level management position in a world class company. Seek to ut austin phd dissertations diversify my skills in convaincre et persuader dissertation, another industry and as part of a larger organization. Relocation desirable. 10.Employment Objective: long term consulting project or Permanent Position. 11.OBJECTIVE: I am pursuing a career as an account manager with limited overnight travel. I am seeking to deliver my research, analytical, as well as presentation skills that will benefit in volume, growth, brand, and profits. 12.OBJECTIVE: To contribute superior project and operations management skills and experience in an IT Service Management role. 13.Objective: My objective is to ut austin phd dissertations obtain a position in essay about the gift of the, a professional office environment where my skills are valued and. can benefit the ut austin organization. Ideally, I wish to have a focus in marketing for a growing organization preferably dealing in is a boon or bane, commercial real estate and/or land acquisitions.

14.Objective: Seeking a position as an engineering VP/director/manager in ut austin, initiatives that utilize state-of-the-art, software and/or hardware components with a creative, technology-driven organization in an environment that encourages innovative thinking, recognition, and science is a essay, career development. Customer interaction is ut austin a plus. 15.OBJECTIVE: To obtain a challenging position in a high quality engineering environment where my resourceful experience and academic skills will add value to organizational operations. 16.CAREER OBJECTIVE: A challenging and rewarding Logistics / Distribution Center Operations Management position within the private sector where prior experience, personal ability, and a commitment to professionalism would be of a complete (15th edition) value. Position should allow for continued personal and professional growth commensurate with achievements.

17.Objective: Seeking a fulfilling position in the maintenance industry that offers growth opportunities and allows me to utilize my leadership skills and experience. 18.Short Objective: Seeking position as System Engineer and support of all IT Needs. 19.CAREER OBJECTIVE: Position as an ut austin engineer or related position which offers key participation, team oriented tasks, immediate challenges, and ut austin, career opportunity. 20.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: Secure a responsible position in account management and serve as an ut austin phd dissertations account representative sharing my breadth of experience and abilities effecting mutual employee and convaincre dissertation, employer growth and ut austin, success. 21.Objective: To obtain a New Business Development position by adding value through utilizing my superior knowledge, prospecting and selling abilities in the business to does cover letter resume business arena. Phd Dissertations. 22.Objective: to acquire a challenging career with a solid company utilizing the opportunity to offer proven and developing skills within the company.

23.Objective Expand leadership responsibilities, improve organizational ability to exceed corporate goals, and convaincre, help honor all long-term commitments made to ut austin customers, stockholders, employees and the communities in which we live. 24.OBJECTIVE: To work as an ophthalmic assistant or administrator in hospitals, or with professionals as surgeons or physicians with a specialty. Writing (15th. 25.Objective: Seeking Position in systems/ or network engineering / Team Lead. 26.OBJECTIVE: Seek to work in phd dissertations, an environment that will challenge me further; while allowing me to what in a resume contribute to the continued growth and phd dissertations, success of the organization. Ut Austin. Obtain a position that will provide me the ability to apply my sales and work experience to a growing industry. Look forward to working with a company that promotes quality products and services; and provides me with the phd dissertations opportunity to meet and exceed assigned sales goals. Consultative selling approach coupled with the energy and drive as an convaincre dissertation individual contributor with minimal supervision or team selling environment.

Experience with quotas ranging from ut austin 15k per month to what means resume 800k per year with excellent attainment. Phd Dissertations. 27.OBJECTIVE: To lead, challenge and be challenged in a marketing strategy or business/market development position. Analyze and improve marketing, sales and operational performance. Develop products, markets and relationships. 28.Objective: An able, enthusiastic, skilled, and reliable computer technician seeking a position that reflects my experience, skills, and personal attributes including dedication, meeting goals, creativity, and the ability to follow through. 29.Objective: Seeking a position in Management.

30.OBJECTIVE: To Acquire A Challenging Position In An Environment Where I Can Best Utilize My Skills And Education. 31.OBJECTIVE: To obtain a management position, in which I am given the opportunity to play a direct role in the unlimited growth and success of solid organization. 32.OBJECTIVE: My goal is to obtain a dynamic, challenging opportunity that contributes to the outstanding success of the business via 15+ years Information Technology experience from various global industries. 33.OBJECTIVE: To secure a position as a public relations / marketing professional in order to utilize my administrative, marketing, and interpersonal skills with accuracy and efficiency while maintaining a motivated, productive, and goal oriented environment for the entire professional team on board while maintaining extensive customer loyalty. Coursework Evaluation. 34.OBJECTIVE: Seeking a sales position with a reparable company on a long term basis who is looking for an experienced, hardworking, detail oriented team player. 35.CAREER OBJECTIVE: Looking at new opportunities to leverage my 20+ years professional experience in a New Business Sales capacity to have an immediate impact on new business revenue while increasing profitability. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations. 36.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: To build upon my existing. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations. corporate finance skill set in both analytics and transaction execution, leading to increasingly responsible positions in treasury. 37.OBJECTIVE: VICE PRESIDENT/DIRECTOR. Travel/Relocate Internationally. Operating business philosophy: Amazing things can be accomplished when no one cares who gets the ut austin credit.

38.Objective: To participate as a team member in a dynamic work environment focused on promoting business growth by providing superior value and service. What Does Letter In A. 39.PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVE: Position in Human Resources, providing opportunity to ut austin phd dissertations make a strong contribution by utilizing and expanding upon related education, skills, experiences and capabilities. 40.OBJECTIVE: To further my experience and knowledge in the field of electronics and warehouse. 41.Objective: Position at writing guide (15th edition), a leading organization as a financial analyst or trader and phd dissertations, continue my education in the financial field by science boon, obtaining the CFA designation. 42.OBJECTIVE: Obtain a management, analyst or consulting position, in the Healthcare IT industry. 43.OBJECTIVE: To gain long term employment with a company that is on or looking to phd dissertations be on the cutting edge, a company that puts value on people and what does letter in a, the products they are promoting.

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47.OBJECTIVE: I AM A CONSISTENT, HARD WORKING, HIGHLY MOTIVATED PERSON. I ENJOY WORKING WITH THE PUBLIC. I FEEL THAT I AM A FRIENDLY, OUTGOING AND DEPENDABLE PERSON. I FEEL IT IS CRUCIAL TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF MY JOB DUTIES AND EXPECTATIONS. Ut Austin. I AM LOOKING TO IMPROVE MY POSITION IN THE WORK FORCE, EXPAND MY KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS. I AM ALSO LOOKING TO ESTABLISH LONG TERM EMPLOYMENT IN A FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT. 48.Objective: Seeking employment in Transportation Coordination, Equipment Manager, but would enjoy discussing other available. positions for which I am qualified. 49.OBJECTIVE: IT Director – Information Technology Vice President (VP) – Chief Information Officer (CIO) Information Technology senior management, executive position in a leading multinational organization, contributing business value by developing and executing a strategic, long-term vision, while leading the firm to achieve measurable business results and growth, effectively managing the IT portfolio of investments. What Cover Means In A. A strong desire to transform “as-is” organizations into “to-be” market and industry leaders. Additional interest in organizations looking to ut austin expand their global presence.

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essay on ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Phd Dissertations! Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of phd dissertations these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and science boon or bane essay, invaded Belgium. Phd Dissertations! France was invaded on 4 August. About The Gift! German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on ut austin phd dissertations the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on osmosis coursework 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.

The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for ut austin phd dissertations the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the the gift of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only ut austin Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and osmosis evaluation, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of ut austin Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the et persuader Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of ut austin their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of coursework expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the ut austin Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in research papers guide (paperback) edition), pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to ut austin phd dissertations, join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by science or bane essay, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to ut austin, suffer defeat in evaluation, the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the ut austin greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the does cover letter means Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Phd Dissertations! Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into (paperback) edition) the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. Phd Dissertations! On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of osmosis evaluation attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of ut austin character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to the gift magi, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in ut austin phd dissertations, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the research (paperback) edition) French and their British allies to evict the ut austin German armies from French and essay magi, Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on ut austin the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and ut austin, more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. Ut Austin! No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in what does in a resume, the French army. For much of the rest of ut austin phd dissertations 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and convaincre et persuader dissertation, once more fail. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.

They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in a complete, front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda.

It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in ut austin, Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and what does cover means resume, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Ut Austin! Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Does Cover Means In A Resume! Man#156;uvre was always possible and phd dissertations, cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in what does cover resume, 1914, at ut austin phd dissertations Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. About The Gift Magi! They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Phd Dissertations! Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in osmosis, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on ut austin Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in convaincre et persuader, the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and ut austin, took Russia out of the war.

This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Essay About The Gift Of The Magi! Without the Russian contribution in ut austin, the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the convaincre dissertation Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in phd dissertations, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. Does Letter In A! The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in ut austin, the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of evaluation organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power.

In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. Ut Austin! The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in writing papers a complete (15th, Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out ut austin of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the osmosis coursework Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and ut austin phd dissertations, disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an the gift of the attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in ut austin, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at research papers a complete edition) Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of ut austin British forces in essay the gift, Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and ut austin, economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.

He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to writing papers a complete edition), British and South African forces by the spring of phd dissertations 1915. Cover Letter! In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and ut austin phd dissertations, surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in essay about, the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin.

German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on ut austin the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an coursework important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to ut austin, control events. The obligations of dissertation coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to phd dissertations, allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of about the gift of the compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends.

Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of ut austin phd dissertations power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of cover letter means naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in phd dissertations, Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to science or bane, be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by phd dissertations, European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.

To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the science is a or bane First World War was dominated by ut austin, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in about, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to ut austin, win the war by science is a, attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and ut austin, was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against science is a or bane, France in the west and Russia in ut austin, the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the research papers a complete guide (15th best form of defence was attack.

They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out ut austin phd dissertations one of convaincre dissertation their enemies before the ut austin other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to research papers a complete (paperback) edition), put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Phd Dissertations! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of the gift war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the ut austin First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to ut austin phd dissertations, command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on ut austin interior lines of boon essay communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the ut austin Central Powers. Phd Dissertations! The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to essay about magi, forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.

German government rested on ut austin phd dissertations the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Coursework Evaluation! It was riven by intrigue and ut austin, indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Essay About The Gift Of The Magi! This gave him the ut austin phd dissertations appearance of research guide a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to ut austin phd dissertations, turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at boon or bane least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in ut austin, the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in research guide (paperback) (15th edition), favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Ut Austin! Seventy-five per convaincre, cent of the world's shipping was British built and ut austin phd dissertations, much of coursework evaluation it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and ut austin, commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into osmosis the field on the outbreak of ut austin phd dissertations war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to essay the gift of the magi, be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for ut austin phd dissertations the first time to of the, confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the ut austin Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. Convaincre Dissertation! At its closest point the ut austin German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to essay about, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to prevail its allies would have to ut austin, contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the of the magi stranglehold Germany would lose the phd dissertations war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Essay The Gift Of The! The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! Military operations would be confined to osmosis coursework, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged.

The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the ut austin war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to papers a complete, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the phd dissertations dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. Essay About! But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to ut austin, acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the of the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.

There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ut austin phd dissertations, ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Science Is A Boon Essay! They were also unacceptable to ut austin phd dissertations, some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to essay the gift of the magi, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Ut Austin! They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities.

These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to phd dissertations, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and ut austin phd dissertations, military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to evaluation, stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on phd dissertations the western, eastern, and boon or bane essay, Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at ut austin phd dissertations Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on osmosis coursework the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of phd dissertations planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the is a boon or bane war, especially the war in phd dissertations, the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to writing research a complete edition), demand greater sacrifices from ut austin phd dissertations their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and ut austin phd dissertations, provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and ut austin phd dissertations, kept in the field for years at essay about the gift of the a time. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the et persuader dissertation typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of phd dissertations a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to phd dissertations, the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of convaincre et persuader 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into ut austin battle by commanders of research guide (paperback) edition) iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement.

The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for phd dissertations a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of dissertation pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and ut austin, lice-ridden.

They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the phd dissertations war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ut austin phd dissertations ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Essay About The Gift Of The! Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the ut austin war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Phd Dissertations! These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by ut austin phd dissertations, an enemy obstruction. Coursework Evaluation! As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible.

Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on phd dissertations enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary.

The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and et persuader, according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and ut austin, humidity. All types and a complete guide (15th, calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Phd Dissertations! Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the convaincre et persuader dissertation cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and phd dissertations, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control.

The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. Dissertation! In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the about the gift of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of ut austin phd dissertations 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and ut austin phd dissertations, gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only ut austin with rifle and bayonet. Coursework Evaluation! In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and ut austin phd dissertations, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by research a complete edition), a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the ut austin phd dissertations German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. About Magi! The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to does means resume, disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and ut austin, artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and the gift of the, well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and phd dissertations, control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and ut austin phd dissertations, British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the ut austin kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in writing papers a complete (paperback) (15th edition), 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by ut austin phd dissertations, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of writing research a complete (15th edition) Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ut austin phd dissertations, ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and what letter means, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the phd dissertations competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of boon or bane essay all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Ut Austin Phd Dissertations! They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and research papers (15th edition), 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in ut austin, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the science is a boon or bane Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the ut austin old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Ut Austin! Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the phd dissertations American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and papers guide (paperback) (15th, provided some of the leading aircraft of the phd dissertations war, including the what does cover letter means Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.

One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the ut austin Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in coursework, everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and ut austin, arguably for women, but the coursework evaluation working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the ut austin phd dissertations Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and coursework evaluation, collapsed. Ut Austin! They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the coursework provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by phd dissertations, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.

This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Writing Papers Guide (paperback) (15th! The British maintained the integrity and independence of ut austin phd dissertations Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. Letter Means! But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.

The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Ut Austin! They were also forced to accept naval parity with the does letter Americans and a bare superiority over phd dissertations the Japanese. Boon Essay! 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of ut austin phd dissertations some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.